A pod is a collection of containers sharing a network and mount namespace and is the basic unit of deployment in Kubernetes. All containers in a pod are scheduled on the same node.

To launch a pod using the container image mhausenblas/simpleservice:0.5.0 and exposing a HTTP API on port 9876, execute:

$ kubectl run sise --image=mhausenblas/simpleservice:0.5.0 --port=9876

We can now see that the pod is running:

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                      READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
sise-3210265840-k705b     1/1       Running   0          1m

$ kubectl describe pod sise-3210265840-k705b | grep IP:

From within the cluster (e.g. via minishift ssh) this pod is accessible via the pod IP, which we’ve learned from the kubectl describe command above:

[cluster] $ curl
{"host": "", "version": "0.5.0", "from": ""}

Note that kubectl run creates a deployment, so in order to get rid of the pod you have to execute kubectl delete deployment sise.

You can also create a pod from a configuration file. In this case the pod is running the already known simpleservice image from above along with a generic CentOS container:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/pods/pod.yaml

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                      READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
twocontainers             2/2       Running   0          7s

Now we can exec into the CentOS container and access the simpleservice on localhost:

$ kubectl exec twocontainers -c shell -i -t -- bash
[root@twocontainers /]# curl -s localhost:9876/info
{"host": "localhost:9876", "version": "0.5.0", "from": ""}

Specify the resources field in the pod to influence how much CPU and/or RAM a container in a pod can use (here: 64MB of RAM and 0.5 CPUs):

$ kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/pods/constraint-pod.yaml

$ kubectl describe pod constraintpod
      cpu:      500m
      memory:   64Mi
      cpu:      500m
      memory:   64Mi

Learn more about resource constraints in Kubernetes via the docs here and here.

To remove all the pods created, just run:

$ kubectl delete pod twocontainers

$ kubectl delete pod constraintpod

To sum up, launching one or more containers (together) in Kubernetes is simple, however doing it directly as shown above comes with a serious limitation: you have to manually take care of keeping them running in case of a failure. A better way to supervise pods is to use deployments, giving you much more control over the life cycle, including rolling out a new version.


Labels are the mechanism you use to organize Kubernetes objects. A label is a key-value pair with certain restrictions concerning length and allowed values but without any pre-defined meaning. So you’re free to choose labels as you see fit, for example, to express environments such as ‘this pod is running in production’ or ownership, like ‘department X owns that pod’.

Let’s create a pod that initially has one label (env=development):

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/labels/pod.yaml

$ kubectl get pods --show-labels
labelex    1/1       Running   0          10m    env=development

In above get pods command note the --show-labels option that output the labels of an object in an additional column.

You can add a label to the pod as:

$ kubectl label pods labelex owner=michael

$ kubectl get pods --show-labels
labelex     1/1       Running   0          16m    env=development,owner=michael

To use a label for filtering, for example to list only pods that have an owner that equals michael, use the --selector option:

$ kubectl get pods --selector owner=michael
labelex   1/1       Running   0          27m

The --selector option can be abbreviated to -l, so to select pods that are labelled with env=development, do:

$ kubectl get pods -l env=development
labelex   1/1       Running   0          27m

Oftentimes, Kubernetes objects also support set-based selectors. Let’s launch another pod that has two labels (env=production and owner=michael):

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/labels/anotherpod.yaml

Now, let’s list all pods that are either labelled with env=development or with env=production:

$ kubectl get pods -l 'env in (production, development)'
labelex        1/1       Running   0          43m
labelexother   1/1       Running   0          3m

Other verbs also support label selection, for example, you could remove both of these pods with:

$ kubectl delete pods -l 'env in (production, development)'

Beware that this will destroy any pods with those labels.

You can also delete them directly, via their names, with:

$ kubectl delete pods labelex

$ kubectl delete pods labelexother

Note that labels are not restricted to pods. In fact you can apply them to all sorts of objects, such as nodes or services.


A deployment is a supervisor for pods, giving you fine-grained control over how and when a new pod version is rolled out as well as rolled back to a previous state.

Let’s create a deployment called sise-deploy that supervises two replicas of a pod as well as a replica set:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/deployments/d09.yaml

You can have a look at the deployment, as well as the the replica set and the pods the deployment looks after like so:

$ kubectl get deploy
sise-deploy   2         2         2            2           10s

$ kubectl get rs
NAME                     DESIRED   CURRENT   READY     AGE
sise-deploy-3513442901   2         2         2         19s

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                           READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
sise-deploy-3513442901-cndsx   1/1       Running   0          25s
sise-deploy-3513442901-sn74v   1/1       Running   0          25s

Note the naming of the pods and replica set, derived from the deployment name.

At this point in time the sise containers running in the pods are configured to return the version 0.9. Let’s verify that from within the cluster (using kubectl describe first to get the IP of one of the pods):

[cluster] $ curl
{"host": "", "version": "0.9", "from": ""}

Let’s now see what happens if we change that version to 1.0 in an updated deployment:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/deployments/d10.yaml
deployment "sise-deploy" configured

Note that you could have used kubectl edit deploy/sise-deploy alternatively to achieve the same by manually editing the deployment.

What we now see is the rollout of two new pods with the updated version 1.0 as well as the two old pods with version 0.9 being terminated:

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                           READY     STATUS        RESTARTS   AGE
sise-deploy-2958877261-nfv28   1/1       Running       0          25s
sise-deploy-2958877261-w024b   1/1       Running       0          25s
sise-deploy-3513442901-cndsx   1/1       Terminating   0          16m
sise-deploy-3513442901-sn74v   1/1       Terminating   0          16m

Also, a new replica set has been created by the deployment:

$ kubectl get rs
NAME                     DESIRED   CURRENT   READY     AGE
sise-deploy-2958877261   2         2         2         4s
sise-deploy-3513442901   0         0         0         24m

Note that during the deployment you can check the progress using kubectl rollout status deploy/sise-deploy.

To verify that if the new 1.0 version is really available, we execute from within the cluster (again using kubectl describe get the IP of one of the pods):

[cluster] $ curl
{"host": "", "version": "1.0", "from": ""}

A history of all deployments is available via:

$ kubectl rollout history deploy/sise-deploy
deployments "sise-deploy"
1               <none>
2               <none>

If there are problems in the deployment Kubernetes will automatically roll back to the previous version, however you can also explicitly roll back to a specific revision, as in our case to revision 1 (the original pod version):

$ kubectl rollout undo deploy/sise-deploy --to-revision=1
deployment "sise-deploy" rolled back

$ kubectl rollout history deploy/sise-deploy
deployments "sise-deploy"
2               <none>
3               <none>

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                           READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
sise-deploy-3513442901-ng8fz   1/1       Running   0          1m
sise-deploy-3513442901-s8q4s   1/1       Running   0          1m

At this point in time we’re back at where we started, with two new pods serving again version 0.9.

Finally, to clean up, we remove the deployment and with it the replica sets and pods it supervises:

$ kubectl delete deploy sise-deploy
deployment "sise-deploy" deleted

See also the docs for more options on deployments and when they are triggered.


A service is an abstraction for pods, providing a stable, so called virtual IP (VIP) address. While pods may come and go and with it their IP addresses, a service allows clients to reliably connect to the containers running in the pod using the VIP. The virtual in VIP means it is not an actual IP address connected to a network interface, but its purpose is purely to forward traffic to one or more pods. Keeping the mapping between the VIP and the pods up-to-date is the job of kube-proxy, a process that runs on every node, which queries the API server to learn about new services in the cluster.

Let’s create a pod supervised by an RC and a service along with it:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/services/rc.yaml

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/services/svc.yaml

Now we have the supervised pod running:

$ kubectl get pods -l app=sise
rcsise-6nq3k   1/1       Running   0          57s

$ kubectl describe pod rcsise-6nq3k
Name:                   rcsise-6nq3k
Namespace:              default
Security Policy:        restricted
Node:                   localhost/
Start Time:             Tue, 25 Apr 2017 14:47:45 +0100
Labels:                 app=sise
Status:                 Running
Controllers:            ReplicationController/rcsise

You can, from within the cluster, access the pod directly via its assigned IP

[cluster] $ curl
{"host": "", "version": "0.5.0", "from": ""}

This is however, as mentioned above, not advisable since the IPs assigned to pods may change. Hence, enter the simpleservice we’ve created:

$ kubectl get svc
NAME              CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)                   AGE
simpleservice   <none>        80/TCP                    5m

$ kubectl describe svc simpleservice
Name:                   simpleservice
Namespace:              default
Labels:                 <none>
Selector:               app=sise
Type:                   ClusterIP
Port:                   <unset> 80/TCP
Session Affinity:       None
No events.

The service keeps track of the pods it forwards traffic to through the label, in our case app=sise.

From within the cluster we can now access simpleservice like so:

[cluster] $ curl
{"host": "", "version": "0.5.0", "from": ""}

What makes the VIP forward the traffic to the pod? The answer is: IPtables, which is essentially a long list of rules that tells the Linux kernel what to do with a certain IP package.

Looking at the rules that concern our service (executed on a cluster node) yields:

[cluster] $ sudo iptables-save | grep simpleservice
-A KUBE-SEP-4SQFZS32ZVMTQEZV -s -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -j KUBE-MARK-MASQ
-A KUBE-SEP-4SQFZS32ZVMTQEZV -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -m tcp -j DNAT --to-destination
-A KUBE-SERVICES -d -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice: cluster IP" -m tcp --dport 80 -j KUBE-SVC-EZC6WLOVQADP4IAW
-A KUBE-SVC-EZC6WLOVQADP4IAW -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -j KUBE-SEP-4SQFZS32ZVMTQEZV

Above you can see the four rules that kube-proxy has thankfully added to the routing table, essentially stating that TCP traffic to should be forwarded to, which is our pod.

Let’s now add a second pod by scaling up the RC supervising it:

$ kubectl scale --replicas=2 rc/rcsise
replicationcontroller "rcsise" scaled

$ kubectl get pods -l app=sise
rcsise-6nq3k   1/1       Running   0          15m
rcsise-nv8zm   1/1       Running   0          5s

When we now check the relevant parts of the routing table again we notice the addition of a bunch of IPtables rules:

[cluster] $ sudo iptables-save | grep simpleservice
-A KUBE-SEP-4SQFZS32ZVMTQEZV -s -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -j KUBE-MARK-MASQ
-A KUBE-SEP-4SQFZS32ZVMTQEZV -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -m tcp -j DNAT --to-destination
-A KUBE-SEP-PXYYII6AHMUWKLYX -s -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -j KUBE-MARK-MASQ
-A KUBE-SEP-PXYYII6AHMUWKLYX -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -m tcp -j DNAT --to-destination
-A KUBE-SERVICES -d -p tcp -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice: cluster IP" -m tcp --dport 80 -j KUBE-SVC-EZC6WLOVQADP4IAW
-A KUBE-SVC-EZC6WLOVQADP4IAW -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -m statistic --mode random --probability 0.50000000000 -j KUBE-SEP-4SQFZS32ZVMTQEZV
-A KUBE-SVC-EZC6WLOVQADP4IAW -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -j KUBE-SEP-PXYYII6AHMUWKLYX

In above routing table listing we see rules for the newly created pod serving at as well as an additional rule:

-A KUBE-SVC-EZC6WLOVQADP4IAW -m comment --comment "default/simpleservice:" -m statistic --mode random --probability 0.50000000000 -j KUBE-SEP-4SQFZS32ZVMTQEZV

This causes the traffic to the service being equally split between our two pods by invoking the statistics module of IPtables.

You can remove all the resources created by doing:

$ kubectl delete svc simpleservice

$ kubectl delete rc rcsise

Service Discovery

Service discovery is the process of figuring out how to connect to a service. While there is a service discovery option based on environment variables available, the DNS-based service discovery is preferable. Note that DNS is a cluster add-on so make sure your Kubernetes distribution provides for one or install it yourself.

Let’s create a service named thesvc and an RC supervising some pods along with it:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/sd/rc.yaml

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/sd/svc.yaml

Now we want to connect to the thesvc service from within the cluster, say, from another service. To simulate this, we create a jump pod in the same namespace (default, since we didn’t specify anything else):

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/sd/jumpod.yaml

The DNS add-on will make sure that our service thesvc is available via the FQDN thesvc.default.svc.cluster.local from other pods in the cluster. Let’s try it out:

$ kubectl exec -it jumpod -c shell -- ping thesvc.default.svc.cluster.local
PING thesvc.default.svc.cluster.local ( 56(84) bytes of data.

The answer to the ping tells us that the service is available via the cluster IP We can directly connect to and consume the service (in the same namespace) like so:

$ kubectl exec -it jumpod -c shell -- curl http://thesvc/info
{"host": "thesvc", "version": "0.5.0", "from": ""}

Note that the IP address above is the cluster-internal IP address of the jump pod.

To access a service that is deployed in a different namespace than the one you’re accessing it from, use a FQDN in the form $SVC.$NAMESPACE.svc.cluster.local.

Let’s see how that works by creating:

  1. a namespace other
  2. a service thesvc in namespace other
  3. an RC supervising the pods, also in namespace other

If you’re not familiar with namespaces, check out the namespace examples first.

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/sd/other-ns.yaml

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/sd/other-rc.yaml

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/sd/other-svc.yaml

We’re now in the position to consume the service thesvc in namespace other from the default namespace (again via the jump pod):

$ kubectl exec -it jumpod -c shell -- curl http://thesvc.other/info
{"host": "thesvc.other", "version": "0.5.0", "from": ""}

Summing up, DNS-based service discovery provides a flexible and generic way to connect to services across the cluster.

You can destroy all the resources created with:

$ kubectl delete pods jumpod

$ kubectl delete svc thesvc

$ kubectl delete rc rcsise

$ kubectl delete ns other

Keep in mind that removing a namespace will destroy every resource inside.

Port Forward

In the context of developing apps on Kubernetes it is often useful to quickly access a service from your local environment without exposing it using, for example, a load balancer or an ingress resource. In this case you can use port forwarding.

Let’s create an app consisting of a deployment and a service called simpleservice, serving on port 80:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/pf/app.yaml

Let’s say want to access the simpleservice service from the local environment, say, your laptop, on port 8080. So we forward the traffic as follows:

$ kubectl port-forward service/simpleservice 8080:80
Forwarding from -> 9876
Forwarding from [::1]:8080 -> 9876

We can see from above that the traffic gets eventually routed through the service to the pod serving on port 9876.

Now we can invoke the service locally like so (using a separate terminal session):

$ curl localhost:8080/info
{"host": "localhost:8080", "version": "0.5.0", "from": ""}

Remember that port forwarding is not meant for production traffic but for development and experimentation.

Health Checks

In order to verify if a container in a pod is healthy and ready to serve traffic, Kubernetes provides for a range of health checking mechanisms. Health checks, or probes as they are called in Kubernetes, are carried out by the kubelet to determine when to restart a container (for livenessProbe) and used by services and deployments to determine if a pod should receive traffic (for readinessProbe).

We will focus on HTTP health checks in the following. Note that it is the responsibility of the application developer to expose a URL that the kubelet can use to determine if the container is healthy (and potentially ready).

Let’s create a pod that exposes an endpoint /health, responding with a HTTP 200 status code:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/healthz/pod.yaml

In the pod specification we’ve defined the following:

  initialDelaySeconds: 2
  periodSeconds: 5
    path: /health
    port: 9876

Above means that Kubernetes will start checking the /health endpoint, after initially waiting 2 seconds, every 5 seconds.

If we now look at the pod we can see that it is considered healthy:

$ kubectl describe pod hc
Name:                   hc
Namespace:              default
Security Policy:        anyuid
Start Time:             Tue, 25 Apr 2017 16:21:11 +0100
Labels:                 <none>
Status:                 Running
  FirstSeen     LastSeen        Count   From                            SubobjectPath           Type            Reason          Message
  ---------     --------        -----   ----                            -------------           --------        ------          -------
  3s            3s              1       {default-scheduler }                                    Normal          Scheduled       Successfully assigned hc to
  3s            3s              1       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Normal          Pulled          Container image "mhausenblas/simpleservice:0.5.0"
already present on machine
  3s            3s              1       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Normal          Created         Created container with docker id 8a628578d6ad; Security:[seccomp=unconfined]
  2s            2s              1       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Normal          Started         Started container with docker id 8a628578d6ad

Now we launch a bad pod, that is, a pod that has a container that randomly (in the time range 1 to 4 sec) does not return a 200 code:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/healthz/badpod.yaml

Looking at the events of the bad pod, we can see that the health check failed:

$ kubectl describe pod badpod
  FirstSeen     LastSeen        Count   From                            SubobjectPath           Type            Reason          Message
  ---------     --------        -----   ----                            -------------           --------        ------          -------
  1m            1m              1       {default-scheduler }                                    Normal          Scheduled       Successfully assigned badpod to
  1m            1m              1       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Normal          Created         Created container with docker id 7dd660f04945; Security:[seccomp=unconfined]
  1m            1m              1       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Normal          Started         Started container with docker id 7dd660f04945
  1m            23s             2       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Normal          Pulled          Container image "mhausenblas/simpleservice:0.5.0" already present on machine
  23s           23s             1       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Normal          Killing         Killing container with docker id 7dd660f04945: pod "badpod_default(53e5c06a-29cb-11e7-b44f-be3e8f4350ff)" container "sise" is unhealthy, it will be killed and re-created.
  23s           23s             1       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Normal          Created         Created container with docker id ec63dc3edfaa; Security:[seccomp=unconfined]
  23s           23s             1       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Normal          Started         Started container with docker id ec63dc3edfaa
  1m            18s             4       {kubelet}        spec.containers{sise}   Warning         Unhealthy       Liveness probe failed: Get net/http: request canceled (Client.Timeout exceeded while awaiting headers)

This can also be verified as follows:

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                      READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
badpod                    1/1       Running   4          2m
hc                        1/1       Running   0          6m

From above you can see that the badpod had already been re-launched 4 times, since the health check failed.

In addition to a livenessProbe you can also specify a readinessProbe, which can be configured in the same way but has a different use case and semantics: it’s used to check the start-up phase of a container in the pod. Imagine a container that loads some data from external storage such as S3 or a database that needs to initialize some tables. In this case you want to signal when the container is ready to serve traffic.

Let’s create a pod with a readinessProbe that kicks in after 10 seconds:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/healthz/ready.yaml

Looking at the events of the pod, we can see that, eventually, the pod is ready to serve traffic:

$ kubectl describe pod ready
Conditions:                                                                                                                                                               [0/1888]
  Type          Status
  Initialized   True
  Ready         True
  PodScheduled  True

You can remove all the created pods with:

$ kubectl delete pod/hc pod/ready pod/badpod

Learn more about configuring probes, including TCP and command probes, via the docs.

Environment Variables

You can set environment variables for containers running in a pod and in addition, Kubernetes exposes certain runtime infos via environment variables automatically.

Let’s launch a pod that we pass an environment variable SIMPLE_SERVICE_VERSION with the value 1.0:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/envs/pod.yaml

$ kubectl describe pod envs | grep IP:

Now, let’s verify from within the cluster if the application running in the pod has picked up the environment variable SIMPLE_SERVICE_VERSION:

[cluster] $ curl
{"host": "", "version": "1.0", "from": ""}

And indeed it has picked up the user-provided environment variable since the default response would be "version": "0.5.0".

You can check what environment variables Kubernetes itself provides automatically (from within the cluster, using a dedicated endpoint that the app exposes):

[cluster] $ curl

Alternatively, you can also use kubectl exec to connect to the container and list the environment variables directly, there:

$ kubectl exec envs -- printenv

You can destroy the created pod with:

$ kubectl delete pod/envs

In addition to the above provided environment variables, you can expose more using the downward API.


Namespaces provide for a scope of Kubernetes resource, carving up your cluster in smaller units. You can think of it as a workspace you’re sharing with other users. Many resources such as pods and services are namespaced, while some, for example, nodes are not namespaced (but cluster-wide). As a developer you’d usually use an assigned namespace, however admins may wish to manage them, for example to set up access control or resource quotas.

Let’s list all namespaces (note that the output will depend on the environment you’re using, I’m using Minishift here):

$ kubectl get ns
NAME              STATUS    AGE
default           Active    13d
kube-system       Active    13d
namingthings      Active    12d
openshift         Active    13d
openshift-infra   Active    13d

You can learn more about a namespace using the describe verb, for example:

$ kubectl describe ns default
Name:   default
Labels: <none>
Status: Active

No resource quota.

No resource limits.

Let’s now create a new namespace called test now:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/ns/ns.yaml
namespace "test" created

$ kubectl get ns
NAME              STATUS    AGE
default           Active    13d
kube-system       Active    13d
namingthings      Active    12d
openshift         Active    13d
openshift-infra   Active    13d
test              Active    3s

Alternatively, we can could have created the namespace using the kubectl create namespace test command.

To launch a pod in the newly created namespace test, do:

$ kubectl apply --namespace=test -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/ns/pod.yaml

Note that using above method the namespace becomes a runtime property, that is, you can deploy the same pod or service, etc. into multiple namespaces (for example: dev and prod). Hard-coding the namespace directly in the metadata section like shown in the following is possible but causes less flexibility when deploying your apps:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
  name: podintest
  namespace: test

To list namespaced objects such as our pod podintest, run the following command:

$ kubectl get pods --namespace=test
podintest   1/1       Running   0          16s

You can remove the namespace (and everything inside) with:

$ kubectl delete ns test

If you’re an admin, you might want to check out the docs for more info how to handle namespaces.


A Kubernetes volume is essentially a directory accessible to all containers running in a pod. In contrast to the container-local filesystem, the data in volumes is preserved across container restarts. The medium backing a volume and its contents are determined by the volume type:

  • node-local types such as emptyDir or hostPath
  • file-sharing types such as nfs
  • cloud provider-specific types like awsElasticBlockStore, azureDisk, or gcePersistentDisk
  • distributed file system types, for example glusterfs or cephfs
  • special-purpose types like secret, gitRepo

A special type of volume is PersistentVolume, which we will cover elsewhere.

Let’s create a pod with two containers that use an emptyDir volume to exchange data:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/volumes/pod.yaml

$ kubectl describe pod sharevol
Name:                   sharevol
Namespace:              default
    Type:       EmptyDir (a temporary directory that shares a pod's lifetime)

We first exec into one of the containers in the pod, c1, check the volume mount and generate some data:

$ kubectl exec -it sharevol -c c1 -- bash
[root@sharevol /]# mount | grep xchange
/dev/sda1 on /tmp/xchange type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)
[root@sharevol /]# echo 'some data' > /tmp/xchange/data

When we now exec into c2, the second container running in the pod, we can see the volume mounted at /tmp/data and are able to read the data created in the previous step:

$ kubectl exec -it sharevol -c c2 -- bash
[root@sharevol /]# mount | grep /tmp/data
/dev/sda1 on /tmp/data type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)
[root@sharevol /]# cat /tmp/data/data
some data

Note that in each container you need to decide where to mount the volume and that for emptyDir you currently can not specify resource consumption limits.

You can remove the pod with:

$ kubectl delete pod/sharevol

As already described, this will destroy the shared volume and all its contents.

Persistent Volumes

A persistent volume (PV) is a cluster-wide resource that you can use to store data in a way that it persists beyond the lifetime of a pod. The PV is not backed by locally-attached storage on a worker node but by networked storage system such as EBS or NFS or a distributed filesystem like Ceph.

In order to use a PV you need to claim it first, using a persistent volume claim (PVC). The PVC requests a PV with your desired specification (size, speed, etc.) from Kubernetes and binds it then to a pod where you can mount it as a volume. So let’s create such a PVC, asking Kubernetes for 1 GB of storage using the default storage class:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/pv/pvc.yaml

$ kubectl get pvc
NAME      STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS    AGE
myclaim   Bound    pvc-27fed6b6-3047-11e9-84bb-12b5519f9b58   1Gi        RWO            gp2-encrypted   18m

To understand how the persistency plays out, let’s create a deployment that uses above PVC to mount it as a volume into /tmp/persistent:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/pv/deploy.yaml

Now we want to test if data in the volume actually persists. For this we find the pod managed by above deployment, exec into its main container and create a file called data in the /tmp/persistent directory (where we decided to mount the PV):

$ kubectl get po
NAME                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pv-deploy-69959dccb5-jhxx    1/1     Running   0          16m

$ kubectl exec -it pv-deploy-69959dccb5-jhxxw -- bash
bash-4.2$ touch /tmp/persistent/data
bash-4.2$ ls /tmp/persistent/
data  lost+found

It’s time to destroy the pod and let the deployment launch a new pod. The expectation is that the PV is available again in the new pod and the data in /tmp/persistent is still present. Let’s check that:

$ kubectl delete po pv-deploy-69959dccb5-jhxxw
pod pv-deploy-69959dccb5-jhxxw deleted

$ kubectl get po
NAME                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pv-deploy-69959dccb5-kwrrv   1/1     Running   0          16m

$ kubectl exec -it pv-deploy-69959dccb5-kwrrv -- bash
bash-4.2$ ls /tmp/persistent/
data  lost+found

And indeed, the data file and its content is still where it is expected to be.

Note that the default behavior is that even when the deployment is deleted, the PVC (and the PV) continues to exist. This storage protection feature helps avoiding data loss. Once you’re sure you don’t need the data anymore, you can go ahead and delete the PVC and with it eventually destroy the PV:

$ kubectl delete pvc myclaim
persistentvolumeclaim "myclaim" deleted

The types of PV available in your Kubernetes cluster depend on the environment (on-prem or public cloud). Check out the Stateful Kubernetes reference site if you want to learn more about this topic.


You don’t want sensitive information such as a database password or an API key kept around in clear text. Secrets provide you with a mechanism to use such information in a safe and reliable way with the following properties:

  • Secrets are namespaced objects, that is, exist in the context of a namespace
  • You can access them via a volume or an environment variable from a container running in a pod
  • The secret data on nodes is stored in tmpfs volumes
  • A per-secret size limit of 1MB exists
  • The API server stores secrets as plaintext in etcd

Let’s create a secret apikey that holds a (made-up) API key:

$ echo -n "A19fh68B001j" > ./apikey.txt

$ kubectl create secret generic apikey --from-file=./apikey.txt
secret "apikey" created

$ kubectl describe secrets/apikey
Name:           apikey
Namespace:      default
Labels:         <none>
Annotations:    <none>

Type:   Opaque

apikey.txt:     12 bytes

Now let’s use the secret in a pod via a volume:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/secrets/pod.yaml

If we now exec into the container we see the secret mounted at /tmp/apikey:

$ kubectl exec -it consumesec -c shell -- bash
[root@consumesec /]# mount | grep apikey
tmpfs on /tmp/apikey type tmpfs (ro,relatime)
[root@consumesec /]# cat /tmp/apikey/apikey.txt

Note that for service accounts Kubernetes automatically creates secrets containing credentials for accessing the API and modifies your pods to use this type of secret.

You can remove both the pod and the secret with:

$ kubectl delete pod/consumesec secret/apikey


Logging is one option to understand what is going on inside your applications and the cluster at large. Basic logging in Kubernetes makes the output a container produces available, which is a good use case for debugging. More advanced setups consider logs across nodes and store them in a central place, either within the cluster or via a dedicated (cloud-based) service.

Let’s create a pod called logme that runs a container writing to stdout and stderr:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/logging/pod.yaml

To view the five most recent log lines of the gen container in the logme pod, execute:

$ kubectl logs --tail=5 logme -c gen
Thu Apr 27 11:34:40 UTC 2017
Thu Apr 27 11:34:41 UTC 2017
Thu Apr 27 11:34:41 UTC 2017
Thu Apr 27 11:34:42 UTC 2017
Thu Apr 27 11:34:42 UTC 2017

To stream the log of the gen container in the logme pod (like tail -f), do:

$ kubectl logs -f --since=10s logme -c gen
Thu Apr 27 11:43:11 UTC 2017
Thu Apr 27 11:43:11 UTC 2017
Thu Apr 27 11:43:12 UTC 2017
Thu Apr 27 11:43:12 UTC 2017
Thu Apr 27 11:43:13 UTC 2017

Note that if you wouldn’t have specified --since=10s in the above command, you would have gotten all log lines from the start of the container.

You can also view logs of pods that have already completed their lifecycle. For this we create a pod called oneshot that counts down from 9 to 1 and then exits. Using the -p option you can print the logs for previous instances of the container in a pod:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/logging/oneshotpod.yaml
$ kubectl logs -p oneshot -c gen

You can remove the created pods with:

$ kubectl delete pod/logme pod/oneshot


A job in Kubernetes is a supervisor for pods carrying out batch processes, that is, a process that runs for a certain time to completion, for example a calculation or a backup operation.

Let’s create a job called countdown that supervises a pod counting from 9 down to 1:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/jobs/job.yaml

You can see the job and the pod it looks after like so:

$ kubectl get jobs
NAME                      DESIRED   SUCCESSFUL   AGE
countdown                 1         1            5s

$ kubectl get pods --show-all
NAME                            READY     STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
countdown-lc80g                 0/1       Completed   0          16s

To learn more about the status of the job, do:

$ kubectl describe jobs/countdown
Name:           countdown
Namespace:      default
Image(s):       centos:7
Selector:       controller-uid=ff585b92-2b43-11e7-b44f-be3e8f4350ff
Parallelism:    1
Completions:    1
Start Time:     Thu, 27 Apr 2017 13:21:10 +0100
Labels:         controller-uid=ff585b92-2b43-11e7-b44f-be3e8f4350ff
Pods Statuses:  0 Running / 1 Succeeded / 0 Failed
No volumes.
  FirstSeen     LastSeen        Count   From                    SubobjectPath   Type            Reason                  Message
  ---------     --------        -----   ----                    -------------   --------        ------                  -------
  2m            2m              1       {job-controller }                       Normal          SuccessfulCreate        Created pod: countdown-lc80g

And to see the output of the job via the pod it supervised, execute:

kubectl logs countdown-lc80g

To clean up, use the delete verb on the job object which will remove all the supervised pods:

$ kubectl delete job countdown
job "countdown" deleted

Note that there are also more advanced ways to use jobs, for example, by utilizing a work queue or scheduling the execution at a certain time via cron jobs.


If you have a stateless app you want to use a deployment. However, for a stateful app you might want to use a StatefulSet. Unlike a deployment, the StatefulSet provides certain guarantees about the identity of the pods it is managing (that is, predictable names) and about the startup order. Two more things that are different compared to a deployment: for network communication you need to create a headless services and for persistency the StatefulSet manages a persistent volume per pod.

In order to see how this all plays together, we will be using an educational Kubernetes-native NoSQL datastore.

Let’s start with creating the stateful app, that is, the StatefulSet along with the persistent volumes and the headless service:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/mhausenblas/mehdb/master/app.yaml

After a minute or so, you can have a look at all the resources that have been created:

$ kubectl get sts,po,pvc,svc
NAME                     DESIRED   CURRENT   AGE
statefulset.apps/mehdb   2         2         1m

pod/mehdb-0   1/1     Running   0          1m
pod/mehdb-1   1/1     Running   0          56s

NAME                                 STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
persistentvolumeclaim/data-mehdb-0   Bound    pvc-bc2d9b3b-310d-11e9-aeff-123713f594ec   1Gi        RWO            ebs            1m
persistentvolumeclaim/data-mehdb-1   Bound    pvc-d4b7620f-310d-11e9-aeff-123713f594ec   1Gi        RWO            ebs            56s

service/mehdb   ClusterIP   None         <none>        9876/TCP   1m

Now we can check if the stateful app is working properly. To do this, we use the /status endpoint of the headless service mehdb:9876 and since we haven’t put any data yet into the datastore, we’d expect that 0 keys are reported:

$ kubectl run -it --rm jumpod --restart=Never --image=quay.io/mhausenblas/jump:0.2 -- curl mehdb:9876/status?level=full
If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter.
pod "jumpod" deleted

And indeed we see 0 keys being available, reported above.

Note that sometimes a StatefulSet is not the best fit for your stateful app. You might be better off defining a custom resource along with writing a custom controller to have finer-grained control over your workload.

Init Containers

It’s sometimes necessary to prepare a container running in a pod. For example, you might want to wait for a service being available, want to configure things at runtime, or init some data in a database. In all of these cases, init containers are useful. Note that Kubernetes will execute all init containers (and they must all exit successfully) before the main container(s) are executed.

So let’s create an deployment consisting of an init container that writes a message into a file at /ic/this and the main (long-running) container reading out this file, then:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/ic/deploy.yaml

Now we can check the output of the main container:

$ kubectl get deploy,po
NAME                              DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
deployment.extensions/ic-deploy   1         1         1            1           11m

NAME                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/ic-deploy-bf75cbf87-8zmrb   1/1     Running   0          59s

$ kubectl logs ic-deploy-bf75cbf87-8zmrb -f

If you want to learn more about init containers and related topics, check out the blog post Kubernetes: A Pod’s Life.


In Kubernetes, nodes are the (virtual) machines where your workloads in shape of pods run. As a developer you typically don’t deal with nodes directly, however as an admin you might want to familiarize yourself with node operations.

To list available nodes in your cluster (note that the output will depend on the environment you’re using, I’m using Minishift):

$ kubectl get nodes
NAME             STATUS    AGE   Ready     14d

One interesting task, from a developer point of view, is to make Kubernetes schedule a pod on a certain node. For this, we first need to label the node we want to target:

$ kubectl label nodes shouldrun=here
node "" labeled

Now we can create a pod that gets scheduled on the node with the label shouldrun=here:

$ kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/master/specs/nodes/pod.yaml

$ kubectl get pods --output=wide
NAME                      READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE       IP               NODE
onspecificnode            1/1       Running   0          8s

To learn more about a specific node, in our case, do:

$ kubectl describe node
Labels:			beta.kubernetes.io/arch=amd64
Taints:			<none>
CreationTimestamp:	Wed, 12 Apr 2017 17:17:13 +0100
  Type			Status	LastHeartbeatTime			LastTransitionTime			Reason				Message
  ----			------	-----------------			------------------			------				-------
  OutOfDisk 		False 	Thu, 27 Apr 2017 14:55:49 +0100 	Thu, 27 Apr 2017 09:18:13 +0100 	KubeletHasSufficientDisk 	kubelet has sufficient disk space available
  MemoryPressure 	False 	Thu, 27 Apr 2017 14:55:49 +0100 	Wed, 12 Apr 2017 17:17:13 +0100 	KubeletHasSufficientMemory 	kubelet has sufficient memory available
  DiskPressure 		False 	Thu, 27 Apr 2017 14:55:49 +0100 	Wed, 12 Apr 2017 17:17:13 +0100 	KubeletHasNoDiskPressure 	kubelet has no disk pressure
  Ready 		True 	Thu, 27 Apr 2017 14:55:49 +0100 	Thu, 27 Apr 2017 09:18:24 +0100 	KubeletReady 			kubelet is posting ready status
 alpha.kubernetes.io/nvidia-gpu:	0
 cpu:					2
 memory:				2050168Ki
 pods:					20
 alpha.kubernetes.io/nvidia-gpu:	0
 cpu:					2
 memory:				2050168Ki
 pods:					20
System Info:
 Machine ID:			896b6d970cd14d158be1fd1c31ff1a8a
 System UUID:			F7771C31-30B0-44EC-8364-B3517DBC8767
 Boot ID:			1d589b36-3413-4e82-af80-b2756342eed4
 Kernel Version:		4.4.27-boot2docker
 OS Image:			CentOS Linux 7 (Core)
 Operating System:		linux
 Architecture:			amd64
 Container Runtime Version:	docker://1.12.3
 Kubelet Version:		v1.5.2+43a9be4
 Kube-Proxy Version:		v1.5.2+43a9be4
Non-terminated Pods:		(3 in total)
  Namespace			Name				CPU Requests	CPU Limits	Memory Requests	Memory Limits
  ---------			----				------------	----------	---------------	-------------
  default			docker-registry-1-hfpzp		100m (5%)	0 (0%)		256Mi (12%)	0 (0%)
  default			onspecificnode			0 (0%)		0 (0%)		0 (0%)		0 (0%)
  default			router-1-cdglk			100m (5%)	0 (0%)		256Mi (12%)	0 (0%)
Allocated resources:
  (Total limits may be over 100 percent, i.e., overcommitted.
  CPU Requests	CPU Limits	Memory Requests	Memory Limits
  ------------	----------	---------------	-------------
  200m (10%)	0 (0%)		512Mi (25%)	0 (0%)
No events.

Note that there are more sophisticated methods than shown above, such as using affinity, to assign pods to nodes and depending on your use case, you might want to check those out as well.

API Server access

Sometimes it’s useful or necessary to directly access the Kubernetes API server, for exploratory or testing purposes.

In order to do this, one option is to proxy the API to your local environment, using:

$ kubectl proxy --port=8080
Starting to serve on

Now you can query the API (in a separate terminal session) like so:

$ curl http://localhost:8080/api/v1
  "kind": "APIResourceList",
  "groupVersion": "v1",
  "resources": [
      "name": "services/status",
      "singularName": "",
      "namespaced": true,
      "kind": "Service",
      "verbs": [

Alternatively, without proxying, you can use kubectl directly as follows to achieve the same:

$ kubectl get --raw=/api/v1

Further, if you want to explore the supported API versions and/or resources, you can use the following commands:

$ kubectl api-versions

$ kubectl api-resources
NAME                                  SHORTNAMES     APIGROUP                       NAMESPACED   KIND
bindings                                                                            true         Binding
storageclasses                        sc             storage.k8s.io                 false        StorageClass